Hygroscopic salts

Roughly 15 – 20% of our damp surveys in London period properties, diagnose hygroscopic salts in residential buildings.

How to recognise hygroscopic salts

Chimney breasts

Most hygroscopic salts are found on or near chimneys. They typically show on the surface when a chimney is removed, re-plastered of after a leak, flood or extensive condensation.

Replastering or chimney removal often starts the process.

What is hygroscopic?

Literally – water loving.

Table salt is a hygroscopic salt

Pure sodium chloride, that is table salt, causes moisture to condense when the relative humidity exceeds 75%RH. The form of condensation is called deliquescence. For ease, any salt that causes condensation at or below 75%RH is considered to be hygroscopic.

Surveyor tips

  1. Once you’ve got your “eye in” you’ll start to see the tell tale stain on almost every street.
  2. You’ll start to recognise them roughly 20% of the time in period properties (at least in London).
  3. They are most common on or near ground floor chimney breasts, especially ones that have been opened up, re-plaster or removed.
  4. Understandably, they are often mistaken for rising damp, especially as groundwater also have hygroscopic salts. The way you can tell is rising damp would be even, horizontal and rarely seen above a few brick courses.
  5. You’ll find hygroscopic salts at the top of top floor chimney breasts – often mistaken for roof or chimney stack failure. The way you can tell is hygroscopic salts are colourless and vary according to humidity and temperature, not necessarily when it is raining.
  6. In towns and cities hygroscopic salts that has been on a wall for a long time often looks dirty from soot.
  7. Occasionally you’ll find hygroscopic salts where away from a chimney breast, where manure is likely to have been in Victorian times before cars replaced horses.
  8. It can be a challenge to identify missing chimney breasts, especially if the stacks have been removed. I will look at other similar constructed neighbouring properties and or consider where the chimney was likely to have been.
  9. Nitrate is easy to identify with Palintest (either from Protimeter or exactly the same test at a fraction of the price from Kusuri).
  10. Calcium chloride looks similar to calcium nitrate, so a test failure does not mean that you don’t have a hygroscopic salt.
  11. Hygroscopic salts are not a source of moisture. The amount of water in a property is not increasing. Technically their source is vapour (condensation).
  12. They are benign can’t cause mould or rot, but are considered unsightly.
  13. The easiest treatment is two coats of solvent based stain block primer such as Zinsser cover stain, with a very large overlap, 300mm for smaller spots.

Calcium nitrate

Soil is full of nitrate salts, including calcium nitrate a good fertiliser. Groundwater (the source of water in rising damp) and used in mains water in parts of the country is full of nitrates as is timber used for fires, and probably coal. Manure is full of calcium nitrates.

Critical relative humidity

The critical relative humidity of calcium nitrate is 46.7%RH at 30˚C. Salts become more hygroscopic as temperature increase. Therefore, the damp patches can look worse in summer.

Heat loss

Manure is the second most common source.

And on the hottest days in summer, water can appear to run down the wall.

Here is a selection of illustrative photos.

Looking at the outside can prepare you before a damp survey.

Finding hygroscopic salts

Despite no visible damp, the damp meter reading is off the scale 99.9WME.

On many occasions there is no visible damp.

A kettle can make the hygroscopic salts more viisble.
There is dampness just above the lip over the fireplace.
I managed to extract a reasonable amount of calcium nitrate to test for nitrates and experiment with.
Using the Palintest Nitrate test kit, I positively identified nitrates.

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